I developed this algorithm to run efficiently on platforms without hardware floating-point support. Besides using fixed-point math it uses a different approach than any others I have seen.

It can resize the image by factors from 0 to 2 (exclusive), where 1 keeps the original size. The scale factors for the X and Y directions can be different.

The upper-limit of the scaling factor may be increased by increasing the number of integer bits in the fixed-point format. I am working on a version that selects the number of integer- and fractional-part bits depending on the scaling factors.

I think I invented this algorithm (that is, I have never seen it anywhere else before), but perhaps it was already invented by someone else. If you know of an existing source for this algorithm, please let me know.

Here is how the rescaling is done for one line of pixels (width) in a gray-scale image (The rescaling on the height follows the same principle):

First, let's imagine that both images have the same width (units of measure) but different number of pixels, so the pixels of the image with less pixels are wider than the pixels of the image with more pixels.

The width of the pixels of the destination image is always 1.0, so if we are enlarging the image (increasing the number of pixels), then the width of the pixels of the source image is greater than 1.0. If we are shrinking (reducing the number of pixels), then the width of the pixels of the source image is smaller than 1.0.

Let's suppose we want to enlarge one line from 3 pixels to 5 pixels. We must pair both the source and destination pixels: (fig. 1)

After pairing, we must imagine additional borders inside pixels (dotted lines), mirroring the borders between the pixels of the other line (source or destination), effectively creating sub-pixels. (fig. 2)

The width of each sub-pixel is the width of the intersection between the source and destination pixels that it covers.

The value of each destination pixel is the sum of one or more sub-pixels. The contribution of each sub-pixel to the intensity of the destination pixel is the sub-pixel width multiplied by the intensity of the source pixel that contains it.

For instance, destination pixel D1 is composed by only one sub-pixel (S1 * 1.0). Destination pixel D2 is composed by two sub-pixels ( S1 * 0.66 + S2 * 0.33 ). And so on.

The sum of the widths of all sub-pixels that compose each destination pixel is always 1.0, so we don't need to do a division, just sum the products of the sub-pixel widths by the origin pixel values.

Algorithmically:

fws = 1.66666;// Width of the source pixel fwd = 1.0; // Width of the destination pixel acc = 0; // Accumulator si = 0; // Source pixel index di = 0; // Destination pixel index while( di < dstimgwidth ){ fw = min( fws, fwd ); // Sub-pixel width acc += srcimg[si] * fw;// Add the sub-pixel contribution fws -= fw; // Subtract the already used portion of the source pixel if( fws == 0 ){ // Current source pixel exausted fws = 1.66666; // Reload source pixel width si++; // Next source pixel } fwd -= fw; // Subtract the already used portion of the destination pixel if( fwd == 0 ){ // Finished calculation of current destination pixel fwd = 1.0; // Reload destination pixel width dstimg[di] = acc; // Save calculated destination pixel di++; // Next destination pixel acc = 0; // Zero accumulator for next destination pixel } }Source code:

//============================================================================== // Copyright (c) 2009-2010, Isaac Marino Bavaresco // All rights reserved. //============================================================================== // isaacbavaresco@yahoo.com.br //============================================================================== //============================================================================== #include <unistd.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <fcntl.h> #include <string.h> #include <sys/stat.h> //============================================================================== // Returns the lesser of two values #define min(a,b) ((a)<(b)?(a):(b)) // Converts an integer value 'a' to a fixed-point value. In this implementation // the value of 'a' may be 0 or 1. #define int2fix(a) ((a)<<15) // Converts a floating-point value 'a' to a fixed-point value. In this implemen- // tation 0 <= 'a' < 2.0. #define float2fix(a) ((unsigned short)((a)*(1<<15))) // Multiplies two fixed-point values and yields a fixed-point value. #define multfix(a,b) (((unsigned long)(a)*(b))>>15) // Multiplies a fixed-point value by an integer and shifts right to place the // binary(mal) point where desired. #define multfixint(a,b,c) (((unsigned long)(a)*(b))>>(c)) //============================================================================== // Rescales one line of pixels. // // Arguments: // ay - pointer to the vertical accumulator's array. // s - pointer to the line of source pixels. // wd - destination width. // pws - proportion of source width. // pwd - proportion of destination width. // fh - height fraction for this line. int RescaleLine( unsigned short *ay, const unsigned char *s, unsigned short wd, unsigned short pws, unsigned short pwd, unsigned short fh ) { // The origin width fraction is // how much remains to finish the contribution of the origin pixels to the // destination pixels. If it is greater than 1.0 then one origin pixel will // contribute to more than one destination pixel. If it is less than 1.0 then more than one // origin pixel will contribute to the same destination pixel. unsigned short fws; // The destination width fraction is // how much remains to finish the calculation of the destination pixel. unsigned short fwd; // Width sub-pixel fraction. It is the fraction that the origin pixel contributes // to the composition of current sub-pixel (<= 1.0). unsigned short fw; // Accumulator X. // Accumulates the contributions of origin pixels to the composition of each destination pixel. unsigned short ax; // X coordinate of current origin pixel. unsigned short xs; // X coordinate of current destination pixel. unsigned short xd; // Iterate for all destination pixels of one line. for( ax = 0, xs = 0, xd = 0, fws = pws, fwd = pwd; xd < wd; ) { // Obtain the width fraction that the origin pixel contributes to the composition of current destination sub-pixel. // It is always the lesser among the remaining width fractions of origin and destination (<= 1.0). fw = min( fws, fwd ); //---------------------------------------------------------------------- // Calculate the intensity fraction that the origin pixel contributes to the horizontal composition of the destination sub-pixel, // multiplying the width fraction by the value of the source pixel, and add it to accumulator X. ax += multfixint( fw, s[xs], 7 ); //---------------------------------------------------------------------- // Subtract the just used width-fraction from the remaining origin width-fraction, and if this reached zero... if(( fws -= fw ) == int2fix( 0 )) { // ... the contribution of this origin pixel is finished, reload the total value for the next origin pixel. fws = pws; // Advance to the next origin pixel. xs++; } // Subtract the just used width-fraction from the remaining destination width-fraction, and if this reached zero... if(( fwd -= fw ) == int2fix( 0 )) { // ... the calculation of this destination pixel is finished, reload the total value for the next destination pixel. fwd = pwd; // Calculate the intensity fraction that the origin pixels contribute to the vertical composition of the destination sub-pixel, // multiplying the height-fraction by the value of accumulator X, and add to accumulator Y. ay[xd] += multfixint( fh, ax, 15 ); // Zero the accumulator X because we are starting a new destination pixel. ax = 0; // Advance to the next destination pixel. xd++; } } return 0; } //============================================================================== // Rescale the entire image. // // Arguments: // d - pointer to the buffer to receive the resulting image. It must be // pre-allocated. // s - pointer to the buffer with the original image. // wd - width of the resulting image in pixels. // hd - height of the resulting image in pixels. // ws - width of the original image in pixels. // hs - height of the original image in pixels. // // Return: // 0 - success. // 1 - failure. // // Note: // 1) This version works for raw 8-bit gray-scale images. That is, the data // is just a bi-dimensional array of 8-bit values representing pixels with // 256 levels of gray. // 2) The scaling factors may be from 0.5 to 2.0 and may be different for X // and Y directions. int Rescale( unsigned char *d, unsigned char *s, unsigned short wd, unsigned short hd, unsigned short ws, unsigned short hs ) { unsigned short pws; // Width proportion at origin ( >= 0.5 && < 2.0 ). unsigned short pwd; // Width proportion at destination ( = 1.0 ). unsigned short phs; // Height proportion at origin ( >= 0.5 && < 2.0 ). unsigned short phd; // Height proportion at destination ( = 1.0 ). unsigned short fhs; // Height residue (fraction) at origin ( > 0.0 && <= 1.0 ). unsigned short fhd; // Height residue (fraction) at destination ( > 0.0 && <= 1.0 ). unsigned short fh; // Width residue (fraction) of current sub-pixel ( > 0.0 && <= 1.0 ). // Pointer to the vertical accumulator array. One entry for each destination column. // This is needed because each destination line may be composed of values from more // than one source line. unsigned short *ay; // Current source line. unsigned short ys; // Current destination line. unsigned short yd; // Variable to iterate through all of the columns of a destination line. unsigned short xd; // One of the dimensions is invalid... if( ws == 0 || hs == 0 || wd == 0 || hd == 0 ) // ... return an error. return -1; // The origin and destination dimensions are identical... if( ws == wd && hs == hd ) // ... nothing to do. return 0; // The scaling factors are outside the allowed range... if( (float)ws / (float)wd >= 2.0 || (float)wd / (float)ws >= 2.0 || (float)hs / (float)hd >= 2.0 || (float)hd / (float)hs >= 2.0 ) // ... return failure status. return -1; // Allocate a buffer to accumulate the partial vertical contributions // of the source pixels to each pixel in a destination line. if(( ay = (unsigned short*)malloc( wd * sizeof ay[0] )) == NULL ) // Not enough memory, return failure status. return -1; // Calculate the width proportions of origin and destination. // Width proportion at origin. pws = float2fix( (float)wd / (float)ws ); // Width proportion at destination == 1. pwd = int2fix( 1 ); // Calculate the origin and destination height proportions. // Height proportion at origin. phs = float2fix( (float)hd / (float)hs ); // Height proportion at destination == 1.0. phd = int2fix( 1 ); // Initialize all the vertical accumulators to zero. memset( ay, 0x00, wd * sizeof ay[0] ); // Iterate through all lines. It may iterate more than once for each source or // destination line. // 'ys' and 'yd' advance 'staggering', sometimes one advances, sometimes // the other advances, sometimes both advance together. for( ys = 0, yd = 0, fhs = phs, fhd = phd; yd < hd; ) { // The height-fraction is the lesser among the source-height-fraction // and the destination-height-fraction. fh = min( fhs, fhd ); //---------------------------------------------------------------------- // Calculate the partial destination line for this combination of source // (ys) and destination (yd) line. RescaleLine( ay, s + ws * ys, wd, pws, pwd, fh ); //---------------------------------------------------------------------- // Subtract the just-used height-fraction from the source-height-fraction, // and if the last reached zero... if(( fhs -= fh ) == int2fix( 0 )) { // ... reload it with the total value, ... fhs = phs; // ... and advance the source line. ys++; } // Subtract the just-used height-fraction from the destination-height-fraction, // and if the last reached zero... if(( fhd -= fh ) == int2fix( 0 )) { // ... reload it with the total value, ... fhd = phd; // ... copy the accumulated resulting line to its definitive location, ... for( xd = 0; xd < wd; xd++ ) d[yd*wd+xd] = ay[xd] >> 8; // ... zero the vertical accumulators because we are starting a new destination line, ... memset( ay, 0x00, wd * sizeof ay[0] ); // ... and advance the destination line. yd++; } } return 0; } //============================================================================== // The original and resulting image sizes are hard-coded to simplify the parsing // of the command-line (and because I need just these sizes). #if 1 #define WIDTHSRC 162 #define HEIGHTSRC 210 #define WIDTHDST 229 #define HEIGHTDST 295 #else // Values for test only #define WIDTHSRC 16 #define HEIGHTSRC 16 #define WIDTHDST 22 #define HEIGHTDST 22 #endif int main( int ArgC, char *ArgV[] ) { unsigned char *imgsrc, *imgdst; int ihandle; int ohandle; if( ArgC != 3 ) { printf( "\nUsage: %s <srcimg> <dstimg>\n\n", ArgV[0] ); return -1; } if(( imgsrc = (unsigned char*)malloc( WIDTHSRC * HEIGHTSRC )) == NULL ) { printf( "Not enough memory!\n" ); goto Error0; } if(( imgdst = (unsigned char*)malloc( WIDTHDST * HEIGHTDST )) == NULL ) { printf( "Not enough memory!\n" ); goto Error1; } if(( ihandle = open( ArgV[1], O_RDONLY )) == -1 ) { printf( "Could not open input file!\n" ); goto Error2; } if( read( ihandle, imgsrc, WIDTHSRC * HEIGHTSRC ) != WIDTHSRC * HEIGHTSRC ) { printf( "Could not read input file!\n" ); goto Error3; } Rescale( imgdst, imgsrc, WIDTHDST, HEIGHTDST, WIDTHSRC, HEIGHTSRC ); if(( ohandle = open( ArgV[2], O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC )) == -1 ) { printf( "Could not open output file!\n" ); goto Error3; } if( write( ohandle, imgdst, WIDTHDST * HEIGHTDST ) != WIDTHDST * HEIGHTDST ) { printf( "Could not write output file!\n" ); goto Error4; } close( ohandle ); close( ihandle ); free( imgdst ); free( imgsrc ); return 0; Error4: close( ohandle ); Error3: close( ihandle ); Error2: free( imgdst ); Error1: free( imgsrc ); Error0: return -1; } //==============================================================================

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