From: Scott Dattalo
I know at least a few people are interested in this. I finally got around to applying the 18cxxx instruction set to the sqrt algorithm (see: http://www.dattalo.com/technical/software/pic/picsqrt.html and http://www.dattalo.com/technical/theory/sqrt.html ).It takes only 25 instructions and executes between 68 and 108 (excluding the call). I have no idea what the average is. Although, if I made the test code isochronous, it'd be easy to find that out. I still think there's room for optimization too (but after spending 4 hours fixing an elusive bug in gpsim, I'm not up to it [but I see two places that can be tweaked]). BTW, gpsim runs through all 2^16 test cases in just 2 seconds!
Scott
list p=18c242,t=ON,c=132,n=80 radix dec include "p18c242.inc" cblock 0 N_hi,N_lo mask x,y s_hi,s_lo endc ORG 0 ;Reset Vector Main CLRF status CLRF x CLRF s_hi CLRF s_lo INCF x,f ; Here's some test code that goes through all 2^16 cases ; ; psuedo code: : ; int s=0; ; int x=0; ; ; do { ; ; if(x*x == s) ; x++; ; ; n = s; ; w = sqrt(n); ; if(w+1 != x) ; failed(); ; ; s++; ; ; } while (x<256); ; for(i=0; i< 256; i++) xxx MOVF x,W ;W = x*x MULWF x movf prodh,w,0 ;if x*x is equal to the current cpfseq s_hi ;test case, s, then we need to advance bra L1 ;x. Note that x will always be 1 greater movf prodl,w,0 ;than the sqrt(s) cpfseq s_lo bra L1 infsnz x,f here bra here L1: ; N = s movf s_hi,w movwf N_hi movf s_lo,w movwf N_lo ; find the sqrt of N (N_hi:N_lo) RCALL sqrt infsnz s_lo,f ;s++ advance for the next test case incf s_hi,f addlw 1 ;if w (sqrt(N)) is one less than x cpfseq x ; then we've passed bra failed bra xxx failed: bra xxx ;Set a break point here to catch failures ; ;sqrt ; ; The purpose of this routine is take the square root of a 16 bit ;unsigned integer. ;Inputs: N_hi  High byte of the 16 bit number to be square rooted ; N_lo  Low byte " " " ;Outputs: W register returned with the 8 bit result ; ;Memory used: ; mask ; ;Minimum 68 cycles ;Maximum 108 cycles sqrt MOVLW 0xc0 ;Initialize value for mask MOVWF mask MOVLW 0x40 ;Initial value for the root sq1 CPFSLT N_hi BRA sq6 ;Subtract the root developed so far sq3 RLCF N_lo,F ;Shift N left one position RLCF N_hi,F BC sq4 RRCF mask,F ;mov the 2bit mask down 1 XORWF mask,W ;clear the last and set the next bit BNC sq1 ;We are almost done. In the last iteration, we have 7 bits of the root. When ;"01" is appended to it, we will have a 9bit number that must be subtracted ;from N. SUBWF N_hi,F ; SKPC ;If the upper 7 bits cause a borrow, then RETURN ;the appended "01" will as well: We're done. SKPNZ ;If the result of the subtraction is zero BTFSC N_lo,7 ;AND the msb of N_lo is set then the LSB of the ;root is zero. XORLW 1 ;Otherwise, it is one. RETURN ; sq4 BTFSC mask,0 ;Need to unconditionally set the current bit of the root. RETURN ;However, if we're through iterating, then leave. RRNCF mask,F XORWF mask,W ;Append "01" to the root developed so far. sq6 SUBWF N_hi,F IORWF mask,W ;Set the current bit bra sq3 ;Go unconditionally set the current bit. END
(gpsim is a fullfeatured software simulator for Microchip PIC microcontrollers distributed under the GNU General Public License. http://dattalo.com/gnupic/gpsim.html )
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file: /Techref/microchip/math/sqrt/16bint18csd.htm, 5KB, , updated: 2003/12/10 16:05, local time: 2021/1/23 08:40,
owner: DAVMPE62a,

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