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ON 20230901@8:22:45 PM at page:
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James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] Says
/Techref/method/ai/behavior-trees.htm
Behavior Trees



ON 20230901@8:23:54 PM at page:
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James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] See also:
https://http://www.gamedeveloper.com/programming/behavior-trees-for-ai-how-they-work




ON 20230901@8:35:13 PM at page:
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ON 20230901@8:37:23 PM at page:
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ON 20230901@8:38:54 PM at page:
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ON 20230901@8:42:18 PM at page:
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ON 20230901@8:43:45 PM at page:
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ON 20230901@8:44:23 PM at page:
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ON 20230901@8:49:32 PM at page:
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http://techref.massmind.org/Techref/method/ai/behavior-trees.htm#45170.8677314815
James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] See also:
https://http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KeShMInMjro&list=PLFQdM4LOGDr_vYJuo8YTRcmv3FrwczdKg
Introduction to Behavior Trees video series.



ON 20230901@9:00:28 PM at page:
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ON 20230901@9:01:23 PM at page:
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ON 20230902@7:21:39 PM at page:
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James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] Says

In the asteroid you dig bunches of little caves, pressurize them, and grow food. Many plants have been found to grow just fine in zero g, Red leaf lettuce for example. And others. So food shouldn't be a problem. Of course, we will have to process the waste and that needs really good bioreactors with a wide range of bacteria, fungi, and other life forms to break down the poo and make it usable for the next crop. It's gotta be someones job to tend those. And... bodies have to go in the pot as well. Can't waste. It's not the belter way.
<p>
The key is that to reuse a body, you have to filter out the pathogens so that whatever killed that person doesn't kill the person who "consumes" their remains. The best filter is to let some life form which has totally different pathogens eat the person, and then eat that life form. e.g. it's a bad idea to have a pig eat a body and then us eat the pig, because the pig could catch what killed the person, and we could get it from the pig. Humans and pigs share a lot of diseases. But if you let a mushroom (or other plant) eat the person, it's <i>far</i> less likely to pass the pathogen along because we don't share the same disease vectors.



ON 20230902@7:29:40 PM at page:
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ON 20230902@7:31:11 PM at page:
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James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] Questions:

Why not Mars? Because Human biology expects 1g. If we live on Mars, eventually we will become Martians. That's fine, but now we have another planet locked species with divergent evolution, and, in time, war will come. As sure as every country which is stuck next to it's neighbors eventually goes to war. Living on Mars has a huge cost, and it leads to the same problems we've always had, but on a bigger scale. If we live in the belt, when war comes... we can just... leave. Beltaloda gon fly!



ON 20230902@7:41:20 PM at page:
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ON 20230902@7:46:26 PM at page:
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http://www.massmind.org/Techref/idea/livinginasteroids.htm#45171.823912037
James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] See also:
https://http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/news/concrete-advantage-for-space-explorers-mics-iss
Researchers mixed tricalcium silicate (C3S) and water outside of Earth’s gravity for the first time. The material did harden like concrete, but with far greater porosity than that made on earth. Unfortunately, there was no test of strength.



ON 20230902@7:51:55 PM at page:
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James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] Replied to post 45171.8133217593

|Insert 'The big advantage of living in an asteroid with power and mass available is that you can still move. Slowly at first (remember it's a rubble pile) but even a very slight acceleration builds up, year after year. And you are taking most everything you need with you. 
<P>
Anyway, we need to learn to live in our own shit. E.g. there is no "away" when throwing things "away". Living in asteroids will teach us how to do this because there really isn't any other choice. There isn't enough "things" to throw anything "away". As with humans on Mars becoming Martians (no longer able to live on earth) living in the belt will make Belters (who re-use everything). After humans on Earth (earthers) fuck the place up and wipe themselves out, the surviving Belters may return to earth and bring their way of life.
<P>
We also need to hedge our bet. The earth and sun may not always be here. "We" (meaning others) may mess up the earth, and the sun will eventually burn out, and any number of really nasty pulsars may wipe us out. e.g. WR-104 or like that. 
<P>
Being mobile and spread out is our best bet for survival.
' at: '<!-- 45171.8133217593 EOR --><A style="color:#AF4040" TITLE="Click to login and reply" REL="nofollow" HREF="/techref/login/default.asp?req=/techref/update.asp%3Fact=reply%26url=/Techref/new202309.txt%26id=45171.8133217593">+</A>'

<A TITLE="JMN-EFP-786" NAME="45171.8133217593">
</A> 
Why not Mars? Because Human biology expects 1g. If we live on Mars, eventually we will become Martians. That's fine, but now we have another planet locked species with divergent evolution, and, in time, war will come. As sure as every country which is stuck next to it's neighbors eventually goes to war. Living on Mars has a huge cost, and it leads to the same problems we've always had, but on a bigger scale. If we live in the belt, when war comes... we can just... leave. Beltaloda gon fly!



ON 20230902@8:04:36 PM at page:
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ON 20230902@8:08:41 PM at page:
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ON 20230902@8:10:48 PM at page:
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http://www.massmind.org/Techref/idea/livinginasteroids.htm#45171.8408333333
James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] See also:
https://http://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/Asteroids_Structure_and_composition_of_asteroids
Good list of what we know about the composition of our Asteroids.



ON 20230902@8:18:41 PM at page:
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http://www.massmind.org/Techref/idea/livinginasteroids.htm#45171.8463078704
James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] See also:
https://http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nxeMoaxUpWk
Brilliant video about artificial gravity via centrifuges. I agree with Dr. Stone and others that we can probably adapt to 6RPM, which makes a 160 foot diameter space ship provide 0.99g. The outer edge would only be traveling at 35 MPH, so not a dangerous speed. That's the current SpaceX Starship spinning end over end (160 feet long) and I don't see why we can't make one that is 160 in diameter eventually. The current one is 30, so that's only a bit over 5 times larger. In fact, I think we can manage 7 RPM and get there with a 120 foot diameter ship.



ON 20230902@8:23:04 PM at page:
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http://www.massmind.org/Techref/idea/livinginasteroids.htm#45171.8493518519
James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] See also:
https://http://www.techexplorist.com/most-detailed-maps-asteroid-psyches-surface-properties-date/48111/?
Psyche is the largest M-type (metallic, usually Iron-Nickel) asteroid.



ON 20230902@8:24:54 PM at page:
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http://www.massmind.org/Techref/idea/livinginasteroids.htm#45171.850625
James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] See also:
https://http://www.bbc.com/future/article/20180612-will-we-ever-colonise-an-asteroid
"There are some asteroids that travel in elliptical orbits around the Sun, with their path coming close to Earth and Mars. These could be hollowed out and used as a form of transport, while protecting astronauts from radiation and reducing the need for fuel."



ON 20230902@8:28:04 PM at page:
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http://www.massmind.org/Techref/idea/livinginasteroids.htm#45171.8528240741
James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] See also:
https://singularityhub.com/2021/10/10/this-asteroid-may-be-the-shard-of-a-dead-protoplanet-and-have-more-metal-than-all-the-reserves-on-earth/
Metals are <i>not</i> a problem in the belt. Actually, neither is water, oxygen, carbon, diamonds, power, or any other material.



ON 20230902@8:46:21 PM at page:
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ON 20230904@12:04:46 PM at page:
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http://www.massmind.org/Techref/idea/livinginasteroids.htm#45173.5033101852
James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] See also:
https://http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HZPy8hH86LY
Materials mined in space, belong in space. The cost of safely tossing them down the gravity well to Earth is far more than their value. But to re-supply things in orbit? Or to build new things in space? Water, etc... is far cheaper to get from local Asteroids than to shove up the gravity well from Earth.



ON 20230904@12:05:59 PM at page:
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James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] Says
/Techref/other/../idea/livinginasteroids.htm
Living in Asteroids



ON 20230904@12:06:47 PM at page:
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ON 20230904@12:08:04 PM at page:
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ON 20230907@10:10:41 PM at page:
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James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] Says

<H3>Decode</H3>
<PRE>

  ABCD	AB	DG	F	H	J	L	MN	
0 0000	1	1	1	0	1	1	1
1 0001	0	0	1	0	0	1	0
2 0010	1	0	1	1	1	0	1
3 0011	1	0	1	1	0	1	1
4 0100	0	1	1	1	0	1	0
5 0101	1	1	0	1	0	1	1
6 0110	1	1	0	1	1	1	1
7 0111	1	0	1	0	0	1	0
8 1000	1	1	1	1	1	1	1
9 1001	1	1	1	1	0	1	0

AB (1011011111) = A + BD   + B'D' + C
DG (1000111011) = A + BC'  + BD'  + C'D'
F  (1111100111) =     B'          + C'D' + CD
H  (0011111011) = A + BC'  + B'C  + CD'
J  (1010001010) =     B'D' + CD'
L  (1101111111) =     B           + C'   + D
MN (1011011010) = B'D' + B'C + BC'D + CD'

</PRE>



ON 20230913@1:59:37 PM at page:
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http://techref.massmind.org/Techref/io/keyswitch.htm#45182.5830671296
James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] See also:
https://archive.org/details/donlancaster_asciikbd
Don Lancaster's full ASCII keyboard decoder.



ON 20230914@10:35:01 PM at page:
On a web page you were interested in at:
http://techref.massmind.org/Techref/robot/kinematics.htm#45183.9409837963
James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] See also:
https://http://www.alanzucconi.com/2018/05/02/ik-2d-1/
A good introduction to Inverse Kinematics, using an simple arm with 2 joints and 2 links connected to those joints. This shows what math to apply, but doesn't explain the math or convert it into a program (a later article does using C#).



ON 20230916@11:06:44 AM at page:
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http://techref.massmind.org/Techref/robotics.htm#45185.4630092593
James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] See also:
https://buildersdb.com/beta
A web site focused on robotics events especially robot combat leagues. Free hosting of an organization web page and listing of events.



ON 20230916@11:22:05 AM at page:
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http://techref.massmind.org/Techref/methods.htm#45185.4736689815
James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] Says
/Techref/method/teleops.htm
Methods for Remote Teleoperation of Robotic Motion Systems



ON 20230916@11:22:53 AM at page:
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ON 20230916@11:25:14 AM at page:
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James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] Says
/Techref/method/BOSH.htm
BOSH: Bidirectional Operation over Synchronous Html Data Transfer Method



ON 20230916@11:32:13 AM at page:
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ON 20230916@11:32:45 AM at page:
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ON 20230916@11:45:52 AM at page:
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James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] Says

<H2>Latency</H2>
The major concern with teleop is the speed of the connection. A fast NodeJS Proxy server takes about 1.6ms between robot and controller. Note: Because NodeJS is known for very rapid response times and the web is a JavaScript heavy house, this seems like a good benchmark environment.

<H3>Latency compensation</H3>
But as we move out into the internet, latency of hundreds of ms are not unknown. As a result, any robot with a haptic feedback system can get into oscillations or just lag, causing touch feedback to become unusable. The solution is probably to work towards predicting the next movement when sending data from the robot with the human, and predicting forces when sending data back. Obviously, the former is easier than the latter, but 3D scanning the work area and proximity detection before actual touch can help.

<H4>Forward Latency compensation</H4>
We've already experimented with predicting where the operator is moving the arm via spline curve fitting and it seems like that will work well, but we are concerned about noise in the system and it's needs more testing.

<H4>Back Latency compensation</H4>
Understanding what forces the remote arm will encounter /in the future/, which is required for latency compensation, is very difficult. Understanding the 3D environment and simulating when the arm will contact an object is one possible approach. Point cloud data is accesable via existing 3D scanners, and can be localized to the end effector to reduce data size. Having to transmit all the points back to the controller is a non-starter; it will be critical to difference the current scan and the prior scan and only transmit errors, or to convert point cloud to mesh, or some combination of that and other tactics.
<P>
The video game industry has done important work on this and we hope game developers will be interested in adding haptic feedback via a robot arm.



ON 20230916@11:57:11 AM at page:
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James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] Says

A critical point is that internet latency increases under load. When sending very low levels of data per unit time, latency is low. When sending large amounts, the latency increases. In general, the data needed to convey the motions, and touch feedback between operator and robot are not a problem. 
<P>
The issue comes with the transmission of video or other image data. Even when compressing the video, first the compression introduces a computational delay, and even compressed video takes up a very large amount of bandwidth. 
<P>
One possible solution is to transmit MORE data including 3D scans, with colored voxels or image wrapped (textured) meshes, BEFORE the start of teleoperation, and then only sending changes in that 3D data which are not predicted by the system. By keeping a copy of the 3D data at both local and remote ends, we can predict changes in both datasets and then only transmit from the remote when an updated scan shows changes. E.g. if the robot is moved in the remote scene, update both the local and remote 3D data without transmitting any information aside from the command that moved the robot. The operators view of the remote scene is a re-creation locally by a virtual camera into the synchronised local 3D data set.



ON 20230918@9:12:51 PM at page:
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http://www.massmind.org/Techref/method/kalmanfilter_localization.htm#45187.8839236111
James Newton[JMN-EFP-786] See also:
http://www.ilectureonline.com/lectures/subject/SPECIAL%20TOPICS/26/190
A good series of lectures explaining the Kalman Filter.



ON 20230927@11:09:41 AM at page:
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